Post-treatment of water from natural treatment systems for different applications

The objectives for Work package 4 are:

  • To analyse the effectiveness of conventional post-treatment (coagulation, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration and disinfection) and advanced post-treatment (membrane filtration) and their suitable combination, for further treatment of effluent from different natural treatment systems (BF, MAR, SAT) for various applications through literature review, field data analysis, and laboratory-scale as well as field-scale pilot studies.
  • To review  existing (post-) treatment options required for the “treated effluents” from different natural treatment systems (BF, MAR, SAT) to ensure safe water supply in the context of increasing water demand, deteriorating source water quality, emerging contaminants and climate variability.
  • To estimate and compare the capital and O&M costs of “above-the ground treatment” of water sources and natural treatment systems (BF, MAR, SAT) followed by minimal post-treatment to assess the suitability of natural treatment systems under different water quality and hydrogeological conditions.